Assignment writing

Driscoll’s Model of Reflection

Driscoll Model of Reflection

Today, we are going to learn about reflective practices and also we will focus on one particular model of reflection. You will learn about Driscoll Model of Reflection in particular. A Reflective essay is considered one of the key practices of writing that hold a special place among all kinds of reflective practice. 

First, we need to analyse what is reflective practise actually. Imagine if you could rewind the clock back to the last week. You had a rough week. There were a lot of activities that you went through and they didn’t go as well as you expected. There could have been some experiences that you never experienced before. You were acknowledging those situations for the first time in life so you probably didn’t have an idea of confronting those situations. Driscoll’s What Model focuses on that aspect only.

Driscoll’s Model IDEA

Obviously, now you would be having a clear idea of what you could have done to make the situation better. But, it is too late to think about the past as it is already passed unless of course, you had a time machine device. There is nothing you could do to make those situations change. However, you can always prepare yourself for future contingencies and situations better. Driscoll’s What Model is an effective method of contemplating this information.

Driscoll’s What Model

The model was discovered by Driscoll. It is considered one of the simplest model of all. There are only questions that revolve around the entire model. It was created for the simple purpose of representing one’s own reflection. Plus, It was developed during the early 1990s. It was inspired by Terry Barton’s interrogation in 1970. There were three basic questions in it. 

  1. What?
  2. So What?
  3. Now What?

Model is very useful to portray well-established reflective writing. The reason is that it helps the writer to organise their document in a more constructive and concise way. There are only three simple questions that need to be focused on. 

Therefore, in order to set things right for the future and avoid any kind of mishappening, you should have a good analogy of the past. Hence, by evaluating the past mistakes one can learn to tackle similar situations better than previously. 


Here we are going to explain about Driscoll’s What Model through an example that is based on a portfolio of evidence – Feedback Letter/Reflection. 

What/Who – The member of the Embassy + Reflective Piece. I have used Driscoll (2000) Model to describe my reflection on this case.

When – I wrote this reflection on the XYZ date. I am an administrative officer at ABC Embassy. A feedback letter was dedicated by the member of the Embassy to compliment the services provided by me as an administrative officer. 

What it shows – I have prepared this reflection as a portfolio of evidence for my work. To describe by proficiency at work and outstanding quality in giving hospitality. 

Feedback Letter – What?

I happen to be the chief member of the embassy of the ABC. Also, I have travelled to many 5 star hotels and resorts in my life. I have seen some authentic hospitality service provided by the firms but I truly admired the way this particular administrative officer dealt with all my requirements. He did not give me any chance to complain. I used to monitor the services at every firm very closely and I provide some constructive criticism to improve their services. However, the officer took good care of all my necessities and requirements. I appreciate your work. Please keep up the good work and help other members to work with the same level of enthusiasm as you. 

Analysis – So What?

It was so pleasant to hear such a compliment from the chief member of the ABC embassy. It really wonders struck me with the overwhelming feeling being appreciated. Such kind gestures make me feel like I should continue you to provide even better service every time. The feedback shared the official did not just make me feel good but also motivated me in so many ways. I will thrive to better my hospitality and character. Plus, as the letter recommended, I am going to help the other members of my department to perform excel with their hospitality services. 

Conclusion – Now What? 

Here there is an appreciation that provided motivation to me and It encouraged me to work even better. The feedback letter always boosted my confidence level. I also noticed the psychology behind the case that whenever you are appreciated for your work, it ultimately persuades you to work more and it helps you to grow your interest in the same field. 

Plus, I have had this idea of receiving feedback letters from the officials even more. It should be made necessary phenomena in the hospitality firms so that they can improvise their services on the basis of the feedback. It is really a helpful way to monitor the quality of the hospitality provided.

What is Reflective Practice

Reflective practice is done in order to evaluate past situations and challenges so that you can perform better in the same situation again. Also, it is helpful in anticipating future contingencies and challenges so that you could prepare yourself for them. Reflective Practice can be learnt better by using Driscoll’s What Model.

It helps the people to improvise at every instance. That is why professors spend time creating new assignments so that you can make yourself better through learning. Writing good assignments are the result of consistent improvisation. They have to deal with patients and students. They have to analyse how things worked and what they learnt from their experiences. How the learning outcomes from these situations can be used for the betterment. 

You can even use the practice of reflective writing in your academic endeavours and at job places too. Regardless of whatever activity that you are performing, reflective practice is useful on many occasions. 

Deeper Aspect

Definition of reflective practice explained above is just one of the aspects of the larger process. It is about expressing one’s own experiences and feelings. 

Definition of reflective practise varies from person to person. The general purpose is to jot down the experiences and solutions for them so that it could be referred to in future. A reflection of one person doesn’t necessarily fit in the perception of another person. 

Purpose of Reflection – Driscoll’s Model

You can start developing reflective practice for the educational purpose. You can use to develop skilful learning at your workplace. The major benefit of reflective practice is that you can use it to expand your narrow vision and see the big picture of every concept. 

You can use to develop your study methods and plans to confirm a seamless education success. 

Driscoll's Model of Reflection

Importance of Reflective Practise – Driscoll’s Model

  • Reflective practice helps you to stay involved in your academics. As you are constantly monitoring all your actions, methods, issues and so many other things. You will be keeping a record of your actions so that you can address them later. Addressing the drawbacks of your study method helps you to find out new ways to tackle your issues. 
  • We all have the tendency of self-talking. There is an inner voice in our minds that leads us to do things consciously. Reflective practise gives a chance to embrace that feeling. Also, it helps us to listen to the inner voices more intensely to acknowledge the situations with a better perspective. 
  • It helps you to make room for self-improvement. In order to make that possible, you have to allocate special time for that. Where you would be focusing on the things that you already did. The reflective analysis gives you that opportunity to analyse yourself improve your skillset or at least brush up your skills to perform things more efficiently and better precision as well.

Additional Benefits

  • Making a practice of it is anyways going to help you with self-improvement and academically as well. Professors assign reflective writing task linked to a general topic that relates to you. You will have to focus on that topic intensely and find connections between that topic and you. 
  • Most importantly, reflective writing helps in becoming more creative. It insists you to take your imagination to the next level. Imagine the stuff that never existed. The problems that you have never faced but the probability of those problems could high in future. You could be aware of the worst-case scenarios. You will work creating new ideas that could help you to confront those situations with minimal fuss and casualties.
  • We always have the tendency to trust our assumptions all the time. It depends on the person but the problem is, assumptions are often misleading and not truthful most of the time. Therefore, rather than depending on assumptions, you can actually analyse the situations on the basis of your experience. You will be able to recognize the real facet of truth rather than just simply assuming things. 


  • The most crucial purpose of reflective writing is that it makes your decision-making even better. We all have the knack to make our decisions mostly on the basis of emotions. It generally doesn’t work out so much better. Therefore, you have to keep a neutral mindset to acknowledge the situations without any prejudice or out of emotions. Reflective writing gives you that mindset to see things consciously and effectively.  
  • Reflective practise is the most healthy way of analysing the past. Most of us do the mistake of dwelling into the past so deeply that we just become lost. Experiences don’t have to be good all the time and if you do not know how to perceive the horrors of the past properly, you won’t be able to manage the present and future as well. Therefore, while doing reflective practise, you will have to keep your mind unbiased, non-prejudiced and neutral minded. This will help you to stop dwelling into the past instead you will be able to snap out of it with a better perspective in the future. 

How to Reflect Driscoll’s Model

Now that you have understood the benefits of reflective writing. You probably would have grown your interest in reflective writing.

There is no secret ingredient to learn how to start reflective writing. It works differently for every individual. Some people like to address their experience out loud and some people like to keep it a little private. There could be many methods to practice reflective writing. Your objective should be in becoming more organized.

Driscoll’s Self-Reflection

What matters the most is that you should be well-aware of all your future activities. You will be executing things more consciously, plus you will have a proper judgement about the future events. Definitely, you would have planned for every possibility of the future. 

The best way of displaying a good reflection is to ask yourself a series of questions about the experience that you had. You should keep a record of all the answers to those questions so that you can analyse better. Meanwhile, it is recommended to learn more about writing a good thesis.

What Questions

  • Did I learn?
  • Could I learn more about?
  • Was easy?
  • Went well? 
  • Went badly?
  • Was difficult? 
  • Why did I feel the way I did?
  • How can I improve the results next time it happens?
  • Could have happened? 

Hence, these are some tips and suggestions that you could use to write an effective reflective paper. Also, if you are planning on writing a reflective paper. You should start by following Driscoll’s What Model. You can follow the example shown on the above of this article to get a clear idea of how to write a reflective paper using Driscoll’s What Model. As you can see, Driscoll’s What Model is comparatively easier to use and it is an efficient way of writing a reflective paper as well. 

By Sara Jason

Sara has been closely working with academic websites for last 8 years. Sara has been associated with for last 4 years a s a leading academic writer. She writes majorly about marketing, general management and human resources.